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Heroism is Emergent

Let’s go back to the beginning.

When I started Rogue Priest, I never spoke about the Heroic Life as a way to become a hero: I spoke about it as the best life one can choose to live, period. Whether that comes with saving people or not is beside the point.

To me, Heroic refers to the Heroic Age, to Heroic Ethics and Heroic Myth: that is, a worldview built around high ideals and the unabashed personal pursuit of those ideals.

But it’s hard to talk about capital-H-Heroic without people asking your opinion on those who wear that title as a badge: the heroes of legend, history, and yesterday’s news who save real lives at great personal risk.

Thus Rogue Priest has spent the last few months talking extensively about heroism as such, about standing up for others even when you’re scared. A glorious topic, but one not terribly central to living a heroic life.

Wait, what?

To be a hero is, as I’ve often said, not something you can guarantee. But more than that, it’s not something ever fully achieved. One of the defining factors of a person standing up for others is that they do not feel heroic afterward. I never would have believed this until I experienced it myself.

That makes attaining the title “hero” more than just a matter of garnering popular accolade. You will never be satisfied that you are a hero. No normally functioning person would be.

Even if you set “becoming a hero” as a goal for yourself, it’s an impossible goal. You can come eternally closer and closer, nothing more; so there better be something in the journey itself that calls to you, ‘cuz that’s all you got.

To quote faith design jargonthis is an experience approach: living a certain lifestyle is its own reward, whether you achieve the goal of heroism or not. C. Luke Mula, who coined the term, recognized this about the Heroic Life from the beginning. I’ve fought him on it, and to an extent, I still believe that the Heroic Life as such is one of the best ways to approach actual hero-ness. It’s just that, as he rightly points out, that goal is never the point.

To move to the language of psychology, Dr. Zeno Franco and Dr. Phil Zimbardo speak of the “heroic imagination”: the capacity of an individual to visualize themselves doing the right thing even at personal risk. This capacity can be drawn from myth, movies, comic books—or in the case of the Heroic Life, from hands-on practice. But whereas Zeno and Zimbardo value the heroic imagination primarily for its ability to get people to act heroically, the Heroic Life values it for a different reason. It’s a damn satisfying way to live.

Ultimately, the Heroic Life must be about more than a search for approval. To spend your life hoping to earn a title is rather like spending it getting to Heaven. These are rewards no one can promise you, that may not even exist. To quest to be called “hero” is very comic book. To quest because you love the road is, well, human.

I now view heroism as an emergent quality. An essential characteristic you can approach, but never quite grab onto. A process, not a point.

This new understanding colors my way of looking at the Great Adventure. I said two days ago that part of my goal must be to learn about heroism. Increasingly I wonder whether that is even relevant to my journey. Should I be traveling in search of heroes and the meaning of heroism, or is that all rather contrived?

Let me know what you think. And please take a moment to Facebook share or tweet this post.

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34 thoughts on “Heroism is Emergent

    • That’s fair, Matt. When I think of the heroes who inspire me, I don’t imagine that any of them were particularly concerned with what it means to a be a hero – they just did it. Not so much about theory. I wonder then if my theorizing is misplaced.

  1. Paul Fergus says:

    It seems to me that you are already a hero. You have had the experience of being heroic.

    The question you might consider now is how the hero in you is sacrificed, dies, or in other words, is confronted with his limitations.

    Are you looking at what comes after being a hero?

    • Well, thank you Paul, I appreciate that but I don’t feel I am a hero. So, thinking about what would come after that? Not too much. Though I do suspect that anyone who lives the Heroic Life long enough (and survives) would eventually retire, and probably move from the role of hero to that of sage.

      I’m intrigued by what you’re saying about limitations and sacrifice – can you tell us more?

    • Paul Fergus says:

      It may be that you need to do precisely that – feel you are a hero. Modesty is a useful technique for avoiding hubris, but then your quest becomes letting it in rather than letting it go.

      That’s part of acknowledging one’s limits. Not the limits of what can be done, that’s what heroism is for – to clear out the blockages to life that are no longer useful. I mean your limits as a human being. Sacrificing your ego to save it.

      Heroism is an intermediary stage. At some point you will accomplish your act of power then all is still and knowledge comes. You may become a teacher, or sage as you imagine. But first you must own your heroism totally. You have to live it fully.

      You might have to do it again and again until you get it, marking and remarking your steps through the labyrinth. Total love and salute to you on your quest! The world desperately needs more warriors such as yourself who are seeking.

      • Paul, all I can say is I nod a little more each time I read your comment. Meekness, humility and arrogance are a topic that’s on my mind a lot. You’ve given me food for thought here.

  2. First off, I must say that a lot of what you write on The Heroic Path inspires me which influences how the Ehoah Path is developed as well. So I am thankful for your thoughts and example.

    As for whether or not traveling to learn about heroism, to search for heroes and the meaning of heroism is contrived. It might be, depending on how you go about it. So long as you go about learning what a hero is in the different places you go through and practice what that means throughout your journey, you will come out the wiser for it. If you go about it in a way that doesn’t permit you to learn, practice and become an example, it is not worth your time.

    As far as I can see, travel is a fast track for this. But one not need to travel to do this, you just need to be creative and diligent in these things in your community. Heroes are needed everywhere and everyone needs a hero. So its not the place or the act of traveling that matters, even though they help, its the people and your actions. By opening your eyes, listening with your ears, and speaking your heart with the thought of your community in your mind, things look different. And will find that no matter where you go, a hero is always needed right where you are. The question then becomes, what will you be a hero for. There are too many issues and people who need heroes for one person to take on, so it really depends on what issue or which people you are being a hero for. The key is to find your passion, make it your issue, and be a hero on that issue.

    • Rua, first off, thanks for your insight on the value of learning about heroes. That’s a really helpful spin on it.

      Second, about traveling, yes “fast track” might be the best way to put it. As far as a cause, I think that assumes that I am going to actually try to be hero – but as this post notes, that is not necessarily my goal. I’m going to try to live a life inspired by the ancient heroes. That may make me a hero or not; it may wed me to one cause or I may meddle in several; but all that’s beside the point.

      (I think :P )

      • Yes, it appears this journey is as much about being able to help causes along the way and possibly finding your ultimate cause through this experience as it is to be about learning and experiencing heroes (or Gods as the case may be).

        What is the Heroic Path if not to become that which inspires it? I realize the emphasis is to be ready and able when needed, and constantly pushing the boundaries and forcing the chance of becoming a hero, that is what its all about right? So then one who follows this path is more than likely to become a hero in one persons eyes or another, regardless of what you think of it. (If you haven’t yet, watch the Firefly series by Joss Whedon, up to the episode “Hero of Canton”. It will give you a better idea of what a Hero is in the eyes of other people)

        Remember that many of the ancient heroes were heroes for doing something Great, not because they were good people. If these ancient heroes were around in our day and age, many of them would be right bastards. The men had their way with women, they pillaged, were violent, and not very humble. Things discouraged in the Heroic Path, if I’m not mistaken. The current day colours the views of the past, making much of the past perceived as “the golden days”, when it is very likely not the case. Just because someone is glorified, doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t scrutinize your view of them and be honest about who they where and if you want to model yourself after them.

        Also, it is one thing to be humble and not consider yourself a hero, it is another when you refuse a compliment of being a hero. Medicine people may be called medicine people, but they do not call themselves that, yet they accept being called that with a nod, acknowledging and respecting what that other person perceives them as. It is being gracious.

        • If these ancient heroes were around in our day and age, many of them would be right bastards.

          I hear this a lot, and I strongly disagree.

          I think much of what horrifies us today when we read the epic myths is a result of culture shock. Did Achilles treat women well? Not by American or Canadian standards. But for an ancient Greek warrior, yep, exemplary.

          I’m not saying ancient Greek culture didn’t have its problems, nor that I condone it. I’m just saying that the heroes of old generally did exemplify virtue in the eyes of their own society. (They also sometime do incredibly antisocial things, which is a literary mechanism to mark out how “different” they are, but that’s a different conversation.)

          The heroes of, say, the Vikings may seem like right bastards if they strolled through Manhattan. But so would any Viking.

          • Yes, they were certainly heroes of their time. I am not denying that.

            Would they be heroes of today’s time is the point. I realize there are major cultural differences, yet that appears to be an excuse for behaviour. Like that of genital mutilation, or child marriages that are happening today. They are considered a ‘normal’ thing in that culture and are accepted. Because something is accepted and normal in a culture doesn’t mean that it should be. There were some in ancient Greek times who spoke out on slave rights, and there were some lived a life that challenged those cultural standards of human rights – Hypatia of Alexandria for example.

            Considering our standards of human rights today and other things we take for granted in our society; should we even line ourselves up with those in the past who did things we would not condone?

            • Oh, this is a fascinating conversation.

              I think it works both ways. If you or I were sent back to ancient Greece, sure, we would treat women exceptionally well and we might stand up for slaves. On the other hand we would be weak physically, and probably too humble to impress anyone. We would seem meek. Based on both Ehoah and the Heroic Life, we would also be impious to a fault. None of these would be seen as good qualities and our chance of being heroes, or doing anything to actually help slaves or women, would be nil.

              Cultural norms are what they are. Genital mutilation in Africa is something that is a special case because much of Africa, right now, is engaged in a process of women’s liberation. 100 years ago it would just be foolish to oppose female circumcision. 100 years from now, hopefully it will be ridiculous to even suggest that women be “circumcised.” But right now is a key time of change.

              You can’t magically transport heroes across time. Gandhi was great even though he did little for women’s rights in India. MLK was great even though he supported the religion that systematically oppressed his people 300 years earlier.

              It doesn’t make them bastards, in any time. At least in my opinion.

              • Some of the examples mentioned may have done little for one cause, but did a far bit for another. I wouldn’t consider that a fault. As I’ve mentioned before, there are too many causes and issues for one person to address, the important bit is to chose one to focus on, otherwise you’d burn out and be useless. Even though they did not directly address those problems didn’t mean they supported them either. Gandhi viewed woman far more highly then most men of his time.

                The topic of religion and oppression can be a whole other topic in itself as most every religion was used to justify harm as well as help at some point in history.

                The view of ‘because it was seen differently in a different time makes it okay’ appears to be a form of denial. As I’ve mention before, there were people in those times who did support rights and spoke out, usually ignored because they were someone who was just an “outlier” in their culture. I am quite sure many of those who were abused in those times saw their perpetrators as bastards, but were silent in their views. Like the views of a slave or a girl forced into marriage to someone who took advantage of that. Not to mention how many would be victims of Stockholm syndrome. Like those who are in abusive relationships today, who don’t see what’s being done to them as something bad, even though our society teaches otherwise. Or does it?

                Even with all these situations and examples, the real matter is, the time and place is here and now, and that is what you do in this time matters more than what was done in the past.

                • Just getting back to this now Rua. Thanks for your patience.

                  I am surprised you give a free pass to religion but not to culture. “Most every religion was used to justify harm as well as help at some point in history.” The same could be said of most every cultural norm.

                  I am not saying that institutions like slavery or brutal patriarchy were justifiable, just that we can’t expect someone raised in those cultures to necessarily have fought against them. People consider some of our best soldiers today heroes if they save their friends in combat, or our firefighters who save the lives of the innocent. We don’t call those people “bastards” because Canada and the US still have racism. I don’t call Achilles a “bastard” because ancient Greece had slaves.

                  I also think it’s interesting that you excuse Gandhi from not fighting patriarchy because he “viewed women more highly” than the other sexists around him. Achilles admired and fell in love with the amazon warrior he had to fight (Penthesileia), whereas most men considered women warriors freaks. Greeks didn’t think women had a place on the battlefield but Achilles “viewed it more highly.” So is he A-OK like Gandhi?

                  • Just read this now.

                    I had not intended to give the impression of a “free pass” on religion. I was setting it aside as that was an entire topic in itself. I disagree with many things in religion and in many cultures too, and each individual has a responsibility to act responsibly in their own lives at the least.

                    There are individuals who are not racist in any way, even though racism is still around in the culture that they are in. I did not say that all ancient heroes were bastards, just some, like Hercules, who raped many women. That is his accounts, other ancient Heroes do not have such accounts applied to them and as an individual would to this day be considered a good person. But that is difficult to tell without being able to meet them today.

                    As I’ve mentioned before, one person cannot take on all the problems their community faces. It is simply too much. Gandhi did much on one cause, and voiced his views on others too. He spoke out on respecting women and acted in such a manner in his own life. Just because people around me are racists doesn’t mean that I am one too. Like Gandhi not being sexist even though most people in the culture around him was.

                    For Achilles case, I don’t know his whole story off the top of my head. In that specific account, yes, he is better than his counterparts. Yet he may not be better in other areas of his life.

                    Like modern day people, there are people who may do great things on one end, and do horrible things on the other end. Not that I’m saying people can’t be redeemed from horrible acts, they can. Regardless of the time people come from, it is important to consider who they were in their entirety before modeling yourself after them was the point I was trying to emphasis.

                    • I certainly won’t defend the actions of anyone who sexually assaulted a woman, though I’m not familiar enough with the Hercules myths to know what you’re referencing.

                      My point here is just this: if the Greek heroes (or other mythical heroes) did things heroic and noteworthy in one realm of human activity – on the battlefield, for example, or saving someone’s life – that is why they are heroes. They went above and beyond the standard of a normal person of their culture. The fact that they shared the same cultural vices as their countrymen is kind of unremarkable.

                      I don’t see a need to demonize someone for doing exactly what they were told it was OK to do.

  3. As you write and think upon the Heroic Life, the more I like the direction in which you are working towards achieving the goals you have made the focus of your great adventure. However, as I think more about your process, I wonder and am concerned about a few things:

    1. What about the heroic efforts of those who dare to speak up and defend themselves in face of great opposition? Is it not heroic to do that as well? It isn’t always about defending other people, correct?

    Sometimes the desire to change things so that one does not suffer ever again over rides the fear of self harm and need for self preservation; it is what makes a victim into a hero.

    2. Why does someone have to journey to far off lands to find a cause to stand up for? Here in the places we call home there are plenty of people who are starving, children are abused, women are beaten, and hate crimes go unpunished. Why seek to aid another culture when your own could use you? Why help people in another country when your people need you? When a man leaves his people because there’s not enough adventure here for him, is he perhaps abandoning home because it’s no longer good enough for him to keep?

    Remember there are legends and tales of heroes who leave home only to return years later to find their families and friends changed, hurt, or in the hands of enemies. Whole new adventures begin again at home when the hero returns, yet one must ask, could all that have been avoided if the hero had stayed to protect and serve his people?

    I do not ask these questions as a challenge to you personally, Drew, nor are they meant to be disparaging, these are the thoughts that come into my mind because after all I’ve read it seems you have put a lot more focus outside of yourself than on within.

    Also, besides concentrating on training the body and mind to prepare for dangers you may experience on the road, in what ways will you exercise your integrity, honesty, and other virtues? Or will the rogue lead more of a Tramp’s life than that of a Heroic one?

    I want to believe that an ordinary man can be heroic, and your enthusiasm inspires me, give me hope that you can achieve honor, yet even you have said heroism is “An essential characteristic you can approach, but never quite grab onto. A process, not a point.” and from this I understand you mean it is an ideal one cannot live up to, but in the process of the attempt to, a man can make himself a better human being, perhaps even redeem himself from past mistakes, and bring himself closer to the Gods.

    I think you are seeking adventure, to collect experiences first hand, and to see with your own eyes how other people worship and experience the Gods, then compare their ways with the ways you’ve been taught and experienced. You want to do this as much as possible before you get too old to do this. You already know first hand that our teachers and mentors regretted not doing that when they were young. You know that I would do it if I didn’t have a disability. So you are doing this in honor of those who can’t and already that makes you my hero, makes you of great importance in my eyes, and to journey into the wild and record your progress to share it with others is the closest thing some of us can get to traveling with you.

    To go farther and achieve more than your peers and teachers is something to aspire to, something that can bring you closer to the Gods, but it does not assure you will meet the Gods for taking the “long way around the barn” because it isn’t necessary. Not everyone has to do what you are doing. Yet, if I understand you right, and am seeing your perspective correctly, this is something you have chosen because you desire it.

    In answer to your question: “Should I be traveling in search of heroes and the meaning of heroism, or is that all rather contrived?”

    I answer with: You already KNOW about heroes and have learned from the examples of heroes in myth, legend, and sacred stories, yet you want to experience what it is like to live like the heroes you have admired and learned from. If you have to ask yourself if this concept is contrived, you should take a step back and think a little less and stop second guessing, stop doubting yourself, just forget about how inferior you are to the heroes of legend. You’ll never live up to that ideal. You won’t get to be a hero for just acting like one. Don’t confuse honor with pride. (you already know that) But you can walk in footsteps of your heroes and Gods. You can live with Them. You can go to places where the Gods have been. You can be in the countries where Their miracles happened. You can visit and enjoy the company of the people the Gods of other cultures fostered, and recognize the Gods in their faces…

    And perhaps, finally, during your journey, or on the way back home, when you can see the Gods within yourself, then you will know that what you felt was missing was with you all this time. But you have to come to that realization yourself. No one can teach it to you. This is why I support your Great Adventure! You are on your way to becoming the man you’ve always wanted to be! I hope this does not sound condescending coming from me. I mean to say this in support of your process/progress. Don’t worry if you don’t have answers for yourself yet. You are getting closer and closer all the time.

    No matter what, even if I have to take long breaks from reading your blog, I mention you in my prayers and offerings to Lugh each night. Good journey, my friend. I will be here waiting for you when you get back. I hope my words gave you something to think about and made you feel warm and full of hope. Peace to you!

    • Hi Val. Wow, that is quite an in depth response. I’ll do my best here.

      1. What about the heroic efforts of those who dare to speak up and defend themselves in face of great opposition? Is it not heroic to do that as well? It isn’t always about defending other people, correct?

      It depends. By my definition, if they stand up only for themselves and no one else, no, they are not heroic. If they make a stand on behalf of all those around them, then yes, they are heroic. Heroism entails some level of self-sacrifice. Doing something for your own good is not self-sacrifice, no matter how right it may be.

      Heroism is more than just good.

      2. Why does someone have to journey to far off lands to find a cause to stand up for?

      They don’t.

      However, when they stand up for a cause, it would be nice if they succeed, right? And not just fail?

      Travel is the best training for that. You can read why here.

      Also, besides concentrating on training the body and mind to prepare for dangers you may experience on the road, in what ways will you exercise your integrity, honesty, and other virtues?

      EXCELLENT question. That might deserve a post in its own right.

      One way I intend to do this is by not begging. I want to earn income during my entire trip. When some family takes me into their home and gives me a place to sleep for the night, I want to be able to leave a card with money in the morning. If that would be insulting, I want to do something for them in kind (help with work, etc) to repay them.

      I want this travel to be very different than the aimless wandering of the 20-year-old. Not that I would deny that to anyone: I wish I had done it in my own twenties. But wherever I go I want to be there to help, not just to gain something for myself.

      You already know first hand that our teachers and mentors regretted not doing that when they were young.

      No, actually, this statement confuses me greatly.

      The only teacher we’ve had in common is John Boatman, may the spirits bless his soul. He had an action-packed youth from everything he told me; he often expressed to me his regret that he was no longer young, but not because he regretted not doing something, more because he was sad it was over. Maybe he shared more with you than he did with me… but that may be better suited to a private email than these comments. Feel free to shoot one over if you like.

      • Hello, Drew! Yay. I’m glad my thoughts in response to your thoughts gave you good food for thought.

        Yes, John did express to me some things he may not have to you. We will have to have a private conversation about that. When I mentioned “our teachers and mentors” I was generalizing, sorry that sounded too specific! I didn’t mean that to assume that. I should have clarified and stated more correctly that I have had several teachers and mentors who mentioned to me that they regretted not doing the things I ended up doing and so on. I think some teachers are like that. Sometimes it is the fate of teachers to witness their students succeed in areas and do things that their teachers did not get to do in life — which should mean that they were good teachers, right?

        In any case, I have sent you emails before but have gotten no responses. I will send you one more private message and see if it gets through. I know you get backlogged at times but I am a very patient person! Til the next time we talk,
        Good journey, Drew.

        • Hi Val, I try to respond to all emails within 1-2 days, but it helps if they are short and to the point. Those get front of the line. I look forward to what you send over.

      • Also, I want to quickly add that I will be posting a blog soon on the virtues of Witchcraft. It will be a different take/perspective than yours on the Heroic Life, but I would gladly love to compare notes! I’ll send you a preview before I post that, if you like. Check your email tomorrow or Monday for sure. I also have some illustration to share, too. Yay! Keep writing!

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  5. Thanks for the mention, Drew!

    First off, I am extremely glad that you are ditching the focus on definitional heroism and going back to “Heroic” in the sense of Heroic Myth. Even though I had theoretical reasons for not liking the focus of heroism as a goal, at the core it really just didn’t feel like it belonged to the Heroic Life as you described on the summary page. So it’s good to see that you’re getting back to the foundation of the Heroic Life, with all the myth and grandeur that goes with it.

    Secondly, I have a clarification to make about how I now classify the Heroic Life. It’s actually not primarily about a specific experience; it’s about making tough choices and living with the consequences. To be clear, every faith (religion, path, etc.) is built on a foundation of experience, so in a way all faiths are about experiences. But in the Heroic Life, the experiences only serve to push the practitioner back towards making tough choices and living with the consequences. Because of this, the Heroic Life is actually response-focused, not experience-focused, which I wrote about in “This Mythos Called ‘Life'”.

    Either way, though, the focus is definitely not on the goal of heroism, so good to see you getting back to the foundation.

    • I’m not sure I disagree, but this doesn’t resonate with me the way an “experience faith” does. I don’t know that I’ve talked much at all about living with consequences. I’m not sure it’s capital-H-Heroic to do so. I think if Achilles didn’t like the consequence he’d find a way to change it. Refusing to accept your fate is almost the definition of Heroic. You make your own way.

      I’m curious what exactly you mean by making tough choices and living with the consequences, and why you feel that is the focus of the Heroic Life.

      • I think if Achilles didn’t like the consequence he’d find a way to change it. Refusing to accept your fate is almost the definition of Heroic. You make your own way.

        That’s actually a perfect description of the response approach. By the “living with the consequences” part, I only meant that the practitioner makes his own choices and must therefore take responsibility for his own choices. No one else is making choices for you, so you have a real sense of consequence, of there being points of no return upon making decisions, and of making real change.

        With the experience approach, however, the utmost importance is placed on the purity of the experience, which means that many decisions can be made for you, as long as the specific experience is upheld.

      • Oh, and there are two reasons I changed my mind to the Heroic Life taking the response approach (while being supported by experiences) as opposed to a sole focus on an experience.

        The first reason is that, during our talk at Cafe Maspero, you said that you were like me in that you find a sense of consequence most meaningful, with a sense of wonder taking second place (and a sense of accomplishment not being very important at all in comparison). The sense of consequence belongs to the response approach.

        The second reason is that, in the comments section of your post about helping the girl in the French Quarter, I said that making these types of tough choices was the whole point of the Heroic Life, and that if you weren’t making these uncomfortable decisions, you weren’t really practicing it. And you agreed wholeheartedly.

        So that’s why I say that. The experience of living Heroically is still super-important, but from what I can tell it’s at best a close second to making tough choices.

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  7. @Drew Jacob

    “I don’t see a need to demonize someone for doing exactly what they were told it was OK to do.”

    Like superior officers telling their soldiers its okay to torture their captives? Would it then be okay for them to do so?

    Should morals be set aside because of social pressure? Would that justify acts considered immoral?

    Because a different time had a different set of morals, does it mean that they shouldn’t be subject to modern moral criticism when comparing them to modern heroes? Would they be a hero in modern times? If not, then should they be even looked upon as role models for today’s time?

    • “Like superior officers telling their soldiers its okay to torture their captives?”

      No, quite unlike that. Soldiers are raised being told torture is wrong. Church, pop culture, and the fiction they grow up with all agree on that. Being ordered to do it is being ordered to do something they have always been told is wrong.

      I try to present the ancient heroes in a nuanced way – as people who did extraordinary things, but as products of a culture that also allowed very brutal and horrible things. I think that’s a more honest view than writing them off as “right bastards.”

      • We may have to agree to disagree with that point. My mention of “right bastards” was toward those who committed acts such as rape and torture. Which you appeared to have agreed with in saying, “I certainly won’t defend the actions of anyone who sexually assaulted a woman”. I had never said that all ancient heroes were right bastards, only that many of them would be because their historical accounts point out that they did partake in heinous acts, most of them involving rape. There are still a great many that would be still virtuous.

        I fear that my choice of description may have struck a cord, and I apologize if I caused distress. That particular word choice was solely based on my true feelings toward those who commit said acts, and didn’t think that it would be disagreed upon in any way.

        All of them were heroes of their time, there is no denying that. Today’s time is what is relevant, and what a hero would be today is what really matters.

        What are your responses to,

        “Because a different time had a different set of morals, does it mean that they shouldn’t be subject to modern moral criticism when comparing them to modern heroes?”

        “Would they be a hero in modern times? If not, then should they be even looked upon as role models for today’s time?”

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